Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 06 April 1920 (Allies Under Pressure): Britain, France, and Italy had grabbed much territory in the wake of the World War (World War I), but by 1920 events had turned against them. In November 1919, the U.S. Senate rejected the Versailles Treaty (Treaty of Versailles) and America began to drift apart from the European Allies (Allies of World War I). Meanwhile, the Bolsheviks (Bolsheviks) had all but won the civil war in Russia (Russian Civil War) and Turkish (Turkish National Movement) and Arab nationalists were defying Western attempts to divide up the Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Empire). Closer to home, Irish republicans began their revolt (Irish War of Independence) against Great Britain.