Caveat on all the maps
These maps exist for educational and general reference purposes only. While all efforts have been made to make them as accurate as possible without destroying clarity, there is no absolute guarantee of accuracy. As such, these maps have no reliability for purposes of navigation, border disputes, or tribal claims.
These maps are about power and political reality, not legitimacy
International borders reflect those recognized at the time by most powers, colors reflect control at the time. Neither has anything to do with what was then or is now perceived as right or wrong, just or unjust.
Legend for the Historical Atlas of Europe (23 April 1913)
Political Control Color Guide
As used in the Historical Atlas of Europe (23 April 1913). May differ for other dates and regions.
|Denmark||No Central Control||International|
Stripes indicate regions of divided control or influence. Annotations and rollovers will often provide more information.
More on influence and control...
Alliances are indicated by a frame around a polity's name on the map. Styles shown below are for the Historical Atlas of Europe (23 April 1913). They will differ for other dates and regions.
|ALLIANCE MEMBER||Ottoman Empire|
|ALLIANCE MEMBER||Balkan League|
|ALLIANCE MEMBER||Romanian Alliance, Triple Alliance|
|ALLIANCE MEMBER||Franco-Russian Alliance|
|NEUTRAL or Dependent||Other countries and dependents|
- INDEPENDENT STATE
- An internationally-recognized independent sovereign state
- Dependent State
- An internationally-recognized state under outside control
- INDEPENDENT REGION
- A state or region which is de facto independent but lacks widespread international recognition
- A dependent region administered as a single unit
- INDEPENDENT GROUP
- An effectively independent group of people with either little claim to independence or minimal unity (for instance: civil war factions, tribal bodies, cultures, etc.)
- Dependent Group/Region
- A group or disunified region with little or no independence
- Microstate, settlement, base, or colony (same typographic convention as above)
- A note providing more information on a polity or region
- A relevant capital city
- A relevant city
- A battle, revolt, massacre, raid, or other conflict
- An internationally-recognized international border
- A de facto, disputed, or poorly defined international border
- Unrecognized border or military front