Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 15 July 1840 (Second Egyptian-Ottoman War): The Ottoman army attempted to reconquer Syria in 1839 (Egyptian-Ottoman War (1839-1841)), but was routed by the Egyptians (Battle of Nezib). To make matters even worse for the Ottomans, the Sultan (Mahmud II) died just days later - to be succeeded by his teenage son (Abdulmejid I) - and the entire Ottoman fleet defected to Egypt. With the Ottoman Empire apparently on the verge of collapse, the Great Powers stepped in. In 1840 they issued the Convention of London (Convention of London (1840)), demanding that Egypt abandon its conquests and accept Ottoman suzerainty.