Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 15 September 116 (Trajan’s Parthian campaign): In 116 Trajan mounted a full-scale invasion of Parthia (Trajan's Parthian campaign), rapidly advancing to capture Ctesiphon, Susa, and Characene. He organized much of the newly conquered territory into the new Roman province of Mesopotamia, but almost immediately faced wide-ranging revolts among the local peoples.