Political map of the Eastern Mediterranean 8 October 1973 (Yom Kippur War): During the sporadic Arab–Israeli clashes of the late 1960s and early 1970s (War of Attrition), the United States upped its support of Israel, while Egypt and Syria became increasingly aligned with the Soviet Union. With Soviet-supplied arms, the Egyptians and Syrians launched a simultaneous attack on Israel in October 1973 (Yom Kippur War), catching the Israelis by surprise and threatening to retake the Sinai (Israeli occupation of Sinai) and Golan Heights.