Political map of China, Japan, Korea, and Mongolia 15 March 1969 (Sino-Soviet Border Conflict): In 1966, Mao (Mao Zedong) launched the Cultural Revolution (Cultural Revolution), a hugely destructive campaign to purge China of anti-Communist thought. By now, Chinese and Soviet (Soviet Union) interpretations of Communist ideology (Communism) had become quite different, with the Soviets abandoning the hard-line thinking of Stalin (Josef Stalin) in the 1950s. This Sino-Soviet split (Sino-Soviet Split) erupted in war over old border disputes in 1969 (Sino-Soviet border conflict), mostly around tiny Zhenbao Island (Zhenbao Island).