Political map of China, Japan, Korea, and Mongolia 19 November 1962 (Sino-Indian War): Mao's (Mao Zedong) attempts to rapidly modernize China led to the disastrous Great Leap Forward (Great Leap Forward) from 1958-61. At the same time, Tibet unsuccessfully attempted to throw off Chinese rule (1959 Tibetan uprising) and its leader, the Dalai Lama (14th Dalai Lama), took sanctuary in India.    Sino-Indian tensions were further increased by a border dispute over two Himalayan (Himalayas) territories connected to Tibet, Aksai Chin (Aksai Chin) and the North East Frontier Agency (Arunachal Pradesh). In 1962, China defeated India in a short border war (Sino-Indian War) but agreed to withdraw from the North East Frontier.