Political map of the Arctic & the Far North 07 May 1875 (Treaty of Saint Petersburg): While the Canadians were expanding westward across their new territories (Rupert%27s Land Act 1868), Russian and Japanese settlers were coming into conflict in Sakhalin. To resolve this situation the two empires signed the Treaty of St Petersburg (Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875)), giving Russia all of Sakhalin in exchange for complete Japanese control over the Kuril Islands.