Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 18 Aug 1846 (Manifest Destiny: Conquest of California & New Mexico), showing the following events: Conquest of California; Battle of Monterey; End of California Republic; Wilmot Proviso; Santa Anna's return; Capture of Santa Fe.

Conquest of California & New Mexico

Manifest Destiny

North America 1846.0818

Conquest of California & New Mexico

Mexican-American War, Oregon dispute (18 August 1846)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

At the outbreak of the Mexican-American War, the US had sent a cavalry force to cross the continent and a naval squadron into the Pacific, intending both forces to meet in the Mexican territory of Alta California. However the local Mexican governors offered minimal resistance and both California and the neighboring territory of New Mexico fell well before the US forces could unite.

Main Events

Conquest of California

The United States Pacific Squadron under Commodore John Drake Sloat, supported by American settlers and volunteers, captured all the major ports and towns of the Mexican territory of Alta California, facing minimal resistance.

Battle of Monterey

United States Commodore John D. Sloat landed 225 sailors and marines at Monterey, capital of the Mexican territory of Alta California; they captured the town without meeting resistance.

End of California Republic

United States Navy Lieutenant Joseph Revere arrived in Sonoma, center of the Bear Flag Revolt against Mexican power in Alta California. the Bear Flag was replaced by a US flag, bringing an end to the California Republic.

Wilmot Proviso

United States congressman David Wilmot introduced a proviso banning slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War as a rider on a $2,000,000 appropriations bill intended for the resolution of the Mexican-American War; the proviso was rejected by the Senate, as were attempts to reintroduce it in 1847 and 1848.

Santa Anna's return

Former Mexican president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna returned to Veracruz, Mexican Republic, from his Cuban exile aboard the British mail packet Arab. He was let through the United States blockade as he had pledged to help conclude a peace to end the Mexican-American War, and was accepted back in Mexico City a month later in response to his claims that he had no aspirations to the presidency and simply wanted the opportunity to fight off the US invasion.

Capture of Santa Fe

United States Army General Stephen W. Kearny and his Army of the West entered Santa Fe, capital of the Mexican territory of New Mexico. They encountered no Mexican forces, as Governor Manuel Armijo had withdrawn south.

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