Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 18 Aug 1846 (Manifest Destiny: Conquest of California & New Mexico), showing the following events: Battle of Monterey; Conquest of California; End of California Republic; Wilmot Proviso; Santa Anna's return; Capture of Santa Fe.

Conquest of California & New Mexico

Manifest Destiny

North America 1846.0818

Conquest of California & New Mexico

Mexican-American War, Oregon dispute (18 August 1846)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

At the outbreak of the Mexican-American War, the US had sent a cavalry force to cross the continent and a naval squadron into the Pacific, intending both forces to meet in the Mexican territory of Alta California. However the local Mexican governors offered minimal resistance and both California and the neighboring territory of New Mexico fell well before the US forces could unite.

Main Events

Battle of Monterey

United States Commodore John D. Sloat lands 225 sailors and marines at Monterey, capital of the Mexican territory of Alta California; they capture the town without meeting resistance

Conquest of California

United States Pacific Squadron under Commodore John Drake Sloat, supported by American settlers and volunteers, captures all the major ports and towns of the Mexican territory of Alta California, facing minimal resistance

End of California Republic

United States Navy Lieutenant Joseph Revere arrives in Sonoma, center of the Bear Flag Revolt against Mexican power in Alta California; the Bear Flag is replaced by a US flag, bringing an end to the California Republic

Wilmot Proviso

United States congressman David Wilmot introduces a proviso banning slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War as a rider on a $2,000,000 appropriations bill intended for the resolution of the Mexican-American War; the proviso is rejected by the Senate, as are attempts to reintroduce it in 1847 and 1848

Santa Anna's return

Former Mexican president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna returns to Veracruz, Mexican Republic, from his Cuban exile aboard the British mail packet Arab. He is let through the United States blockade as he has pledged that he will help conclude a peace to end the Mexican-American War, while he is accepted back in Mexico City a month later in response to his claims that he has no aspirations to the presidency and simply wants the opportunity to fight off the US invasion.

Capture of Santa Fe

United States Army General Stephen W. Kearny and his Army of the West enter Santa Fe, capital of the Mexican territory of New Mexico; they encounter no Mexican forces as Governor Manuel Armijo has withdrawn south

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