Political map of Sub-Saharan Africa 3 February 1960 (Year of Africa begins): The harsh French response to Guinea's 1958 declaration of independence only fueled pro-independence sentiment in the other French colonies. Next to go was the French UN mandate of Cameroon (French Cameroons), which became independent on 1 January 1960 - the first day of what would become known as the Year of Africa. At the same time, the British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan toured Africa, warning apartheid South Africa that a "Wind of Change (Wind of Change (speech))" was sweeping the continent.