Political map of South & Southwest Asia 17 September 1948 (Indian conquest of Hyderabad): Following the end of British rule in India, the Nizam of Hyderabad - a Muslim ruler over a mostly Hindu population - had opted for independence. However, India, locked in war with Pakistan over Kashmir, considered the Nizam a threat and in a 1948 "police action" invaded and annexed Hyderabad (Indian annexation of Hyderabad).