Political map of South & Southwest Asia 15 August 1947 (Partition of India): The end of World War II saw British India in a state of increasing unrest, with debt-ridden Britain unwilling to accept the political and financial costs of maintaining control. In light of the growing conflict between Hindus and Muslims, the British granted their Indian Empire independence as two separate states: the Union of India and the Muslim-majority Dominion of Pakistan (Partition of India).