Political map of South & Southwest Asia 22 November 1915 (Persian Campaign): The Allies were already having difficulties with German-assisted Persian uprisings (Wilhelm Wassmuss), now the ease with which the German expedition to Afghanistan had crossed Persia (Niedermayer–Hentig Expedition) cemented their view that Persian sympathies lay with the Central Powers. In November, Russia marched on Tehran and enforced Allied terms on the Shah, but this intervention only increased unrest elsewhere in the country (Persian Campaign).