The Scramble for Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa 1911.1104
European imperialism in Africa (4 November 1911)
Historical Map of Sub-Saharan Africa
In 1911 France sent troops to suppress a rebellion in Morocco. Germany promptly claimed the 1906 Algeciras Agreement had been violated and sent a gunboat to the Moroccan port of Agadir. After a brief crisis, in which Russia and Britain backed France, Germany agreed to accept French control of Morocco in return for a substantial cession of territory from French Equatorial Africa to German Kamerun.
Cession of Lado Enclave
Following the death of King Leopold II of Belgium in 1909, the Belgian Congo relinquished its control over the Lado Enclave and restored the territory to British rule in accordance with the Anglo-Belgian Congolese Treaty of 1894. The district officially became a province of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, with Captain Chauncey Hugh Stigand appointed administrator. Following the cession, the Sudan-Uganda border would be altered for administrative purposes and part of the former Lado Enclave integrated into Uganda.
Agadir Crisis begins
In 1911 a rebellion erupted in Morocco and by early April the rebels were besieging Sultan Abdelhafid in his palace in Fez. In response, France dispatched a flying column to protect European lives and property; in May French troops entered Fez and relieved the siege. However Germany loudly denounced the French moves, accusing France of violating the Algeciras Agreement.
In response to the French intervention in Morocco, Germany sent the gunboat SMS Panther to the Moroccan port of Agadir, where it arrived on 1 July. A larger German cruiser, SMS Berlin, followed days later, replacing the gunboat. Britain sided with France and sent battleships to Morocco, but the crisis would begin to be defused from 7 July when Germany notified France that it would accept territorial compensation in the Congo region.
The British South African Company protectorates of North-Eastern Rhodesia and Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia were amalgamated to form the protectorate of Northern Rhodesia. Northern Rhodesia would continue to be administered by the British South African Company until the British government took over in 1924.
Capitalizing on a 1902 secret treaty with France, Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire in order to seize control of its non-contiguous Vilayet of Tripolitania (Libya).
On 7 July 1911 Germany entered into negotiations with France to resolve the Agadir Crisis, agreeing to support a French protectorate over Morocco in return for "compensation" in the French Congo region and the safeguarding of German economic interests in Morocco. Initial German demands were for the whole of the French Congo from the Sangha River to the sea, but these were reduced after a warning from Britain. A final agreement was reached on 4 November, with the French ceding 275,000 square km (Neukamerun) to German Kamerun, giving the Germans access to the Congo River. As some compensation, the French gained a small stretch of land southeast of Lake Chad.
- African history
- Central African Republic
- DR Congo
- French Equatorial Africa
- Lado Enclave
- North-Eastern Rhodesia
- North-Western Rhodesia
- November 4
- Republic of Congo
- South Sudan
- Sub-Saharan Africa
- United Kingdom