Political map of Russia & the former Soviet Union 04 September 1905 (1905 Revolution): Dissatisfaction with the Tsarist government and its handling of the war with Japan (Russo-Japanese War) resulted in unrest across Russia (1905 Russian Revolution). Desperate for peace (Treaty of Portsmouth), the Russians accepted the loss of Port Arthur (L├╝shunkou), southern Sakhalin (Karafuto Prefecture), and the South Manchurian Railway (South Manchurian Railway).