Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 10 November 1989 (Fall of the Berlin Wall): By the 1980s, the Eastern Bloc (Eastern Bloc) had begun to fall dangerously behind the West (Western Bloc) both economically and technologically. To address these issues, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev (Mikhail Gorbachev) introduced economic reforms (Perestroika) and opened up Soviet politics (Glasnost). He also sought better relations with the West by declaring an end to Soviet meddling in Eastern Europe (Sinatra Doctrine). The result was the peaceful dismantling of Communism in Poland (End of Communism in Poland (1989)) and Hungary (End of Communism in Hungary (1989)). East Germany followed suit (Peaceful Revolution) a few months later, with demonstrators tearing down the hated Berlin Wall (Berlin Wall).