Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 26 June 1963 (Berlin Wall): The coming of the 1960s saw the Cold War (Cold War) heating up, fueled by advances in missile technology (Space Race). In 1961, another crisis hit Berlin (Berlin Crisis of 1961) when the communist East German government built a wall to stop its citizens fleeing to the west. The Berlin Wall (Berlin Wall) would keep Germans divided for 28 years.