Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 20 March 1918 (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk): With Russia helpless against the German advance, Lenin (Vladimir Lenin) was forced to pay a high price for peace. On 3 March 1918, the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk), effectively recognizing German dominance over the previously Russian territories of eastern Europe.