Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 19 December 1848 (Rise of Napoleon III): In France, the new republic (French Second Republic) held the first French presidential election (French presidential election, 1848). The winner was Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon III), nephew of Napoleon I and an advocate of popular dictatorship (Bonapartism) who hoped to restore what many French saw as the glory days of the Napoleonic Empire (First French Empire). He immediately set about undermining the Second Republic and allying France with the reactionary powers.