Political map of the Eastern Mediterranean 15 November 1988 (First Intifada): In late 1987 unrest broke out in the West Bank and Gaza Strip as disaffected Palestinians rose up (First Intifada) against the twenty-year-long Israeli occupation (Israeli-occupied territories). Despite the deployment of 80,000 Israeli troops to the territories, suppressing the uprising (the Intifada) was costly and in 1991 Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) agreed to negotiate peace (Madrid Conference of 1991).