Political map of China, Japan, Korea, and Mongolia 06 November 1948 (Huaihai Campaign): By late 1948 the Communists (Communist Party of China) were gaining the initiative in the Chinese Civil War. In early November Communist forces moved to surround a large body of Nationalist troops at Xuzhou (Huaihai Campaign). The following two month battle resulted in the death or capture of over 500 thousand Nationalists (History of the Republic of China), severely weakening the Nationalist position north of the Yangtze.