Political map of Australia, New Zealand & the Southwest Pacific 16 November 1962 (West New Guinea dispute): When the Netherlands recognized Indonesian independence, it retained western New Guinea on the grounds that its West Papuan inhabitants did not want Indonesian rule. Nonetheless, Indonesia continued to claim the territory, launching attacks on it in 1962 (Operation Trikora). Under US mediation, the Dutch agreed to transfer West New Guinea to the UN, which then transferred it on to Indonesia on the condition that Indonesia grant the West Papuans a referendum on independence in 1969 (New York Agreement). Although this referendum ultimately rejected independence (Act of Free Choice), the fact that only a tiny minority had been allowed to vote meant that its outcome was never fully accepted by many West Papuans.