Political map of East Asia and the Western Pacific 18 June 2014 (Rise of China): Gorbachev's reforms (Glasnost) led to the collapse of the Soviet Union (Dissolution of the Soviet Union) and a decade of stagnation in Russia, but China's more gradual road to capitalism after the death of Mao (Chinese economic reform) proved more successful. By 2011, aided by the restoration of Hong Kong (Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong) and Macau (Transfer of sovereignty over Macau) in the 1990s, it had overtaken Japan economically and seemed poised to  return to its old role as the dominant power in Asia.