Political map of East Asia and the Western Pacific 18 September 1931 (Mukden Incident): With the help of the Fengtian clique (Fengtian clique), Chiang Kaishek (Chiang Kai-shek) won the Central Plains War (Central Plains War) and was able to turn his attention to the reemergence of the Chinese Communist Party in the south (Encirclement Campaigns). However Japanese militarists (Japanese militarism) viewed Chiang's growing power with concern and, when a suspicious explosion occurred on the Japanese owned South Manchuria Railway near the Chinese city of Mukden (Mukden Incident), they were ready to act.