Political map of East Asia and the Western Pacific 14 July 1927 (Birth of the Chinese Civil War): The Kuomintang (Kuomintang) had received most of its foreign support from the Soviet Union, which strengthened the Chinese Communist elements (Communist Party of China) in the party. However, Chiang Kaishek (Chiang Kai-shek) distrusted the Communists and, in April 1927, turned on them (Shanghai massacre of 1927). The resulting massacres split the Kuomintang, alienated the Soviet Union, and marked the beginning of the quarter century struggle between the Nationalists and Communists for control of China (Chinese Civil War).