Political map of the Arctic & the Far North 27 January 1869 (Boshin War): In Japan, the instability which had followed the arrival of Perry's ships (Perry Expedition) had ultimately led to the termination of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the concentration of power in the hands of Emperor Meiji and his supporters (Meiji Restoration). A final attempt to reassert Tokugawa power in the Boshin War was defeated in 1868-9, as imperial forces chased the rebels north into Ezo (Republic of Ezo). Following this victory, Japan formally annexed the Ainu (Ainu people) lands of Ezochi (Ezochi), embarking on a policy of rapid consolidation and modernization (Meiji period).