French invasion of Algeria
Following three years of deteriorating relations, France invaded Algiers in mid-1830. Although their swift victory would initiate over a century ...
The apparent success of the European revolutions belied the divisions between the city-based reformers, who desired everything from moderate reforms ...
Having imposed peace on the Sardinians, Austria now turned to crush the revolution in Hungary - even though that country was ...
Second French Empire
While the King of Prussia was backing down in Germany, the ambitious French President Louis-Napoleon was consolidating power in France ...
Outbreak of the Crimean War
In 1853, Russia occupied the Ottoman vassal states of Moldavia and Wallachia. After the Russians refused an ultimatum to withdraw ...
Siege of Sevastopol
The Allies decided to destroy Russian power in the Black Sea by capturing the key naval base of Sevastopol, on ...
End of the Crimean War
The siege of Sevastopol was poorly managed by both sides, but eventually the Allies prevailed. In 1856, under the additional ...
By the late 1850s, the cause of Italian unification was drawing widespread support from intellectuals and radicals across Europe. After ...
the Arctic 1859
Russian expeditions and settlers had been infiltrating China's Amur region since the late 1840s. After the Crimean War exposed ...