French invasion of Algeria
Following three years of deteriorating relations, France invaded Algiers in mid-1830. Although their swift victory would initiate over a century ...
First Battle of Custoza
By July, the Austrian forces in Italy had retaken most of Venetia and were ready to launch an all-out attack ...
Second French Empire
While the King of Prussia was backing down in Germany, the ambitious French President Louis-Napoleon was consolidating power in France ...
Outbreak of the Crimean War
In 1853, Russia occupied the Ottoman vassal states of Moldavia and Wallachia. After the Russians refused an ultimatum to withdraw ...
Siege of Sevastopol
The Allies decided to destroy Russian power in the Black Sea by capturing the key naval base of Sevastopol, on ...
End of the Crimean War
The siege of Sevastopol was poorly managed by both sides, but eventually the Allies prevailed. In 1856, under the additional ...
By the late 1850s, the cause of Italian unification was drawing widespread support from intellectuals and radicals across Europe. After ...
the Arctic 1859
Russian expeditions and settlers had been infiltrating China's Amur region since the late 1840s. After the Crimean War exposed ...
Eve of Barbarossa
Following their treatment by the Soviets, Finland and Romania fell into alignment with the Germans. By June 1941, after overrunning ...