Cause and Effect
Brexit and the Crisis of Europe
The 'Leave' vote in United Kingdom's referendum on membership of the European Union ('Brexit') has been greeted with concern ...
the Arctic 1818
Treaty of 1818
Fighting between Britain and the United States came to an end in 1815, with the Allies defeating Napoleon later that ...
the Arctic 1825
Britain and the United States followed their 1818 treaty by defining their boundaries with Spain and Russia. The Spanish, with ...
North America 1835
Second Seminole War
The Seminole of Florida were the most independent of the Indian peoples marked for relocation to the west, having been ...
the Arctic 1837
By the 1830s, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated ...
North America 1837
In the north, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated ...
North America 1838
Fragmentation of Central America
A united Central America had broken away from Mexico in 1823, but remained unstable. In 1837, revolution erupted in Guatemala ...
North America 1840
Mexico was more stable than Central America, but only marginally so. Under the Centralist regime which had held sway since ...
North America 1842
Conflict with the Comanche did not stop Texas from pursuing its vast territorial claims against Mexico. In 1841 the Texians ...
North America 1843
By the early 1840s, American settlers, arriving overland in increasing numbers along what became known as the Oregon Trail, were ...
North America 1845
Annexation of Texas
An even bigger flashpoint than Oregon was Texas, which wanted to join the US despite Mexican warnings that doing so ...
North America 1846
War with Mexico encouraged President Polk to settle the Oregon dispute between the US and Britain. In June both countries ...
the Arctic 1846
Following the 1837 rebellions, the British merged the two Canadas into a single autonomous province and set about resolving their ...
North America 1846
Conquest of California & New Mexico
At the outbreak of the Mexican-American War, the US had sent a cavalry force to cross the continent and a ...
Year of Revolution Begins
By 1848, Europe was already experiencing considerable social tension, in good part due to the rise of industrialization but also ...
Truce of Malmö
In Northern Europe, international pressure persuaded Prussia and Denmark to bring an end to the First Schleswig War and sign ...
Having imposed peace on the Sardinians, Austria now turned to crush the revolution in Hungary - even though that country was ...
North America 1849
California Gold Rush
Just days before the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in California ...
North America 1850
Compromise of 1850
With its population booming, California wanted to join the Union as a free state - naturally antagonizing the slave states. After ...
the Arctic 1850
Search for Franklin
In 1845 the renowned British explorer Sir John Franklin had set off to find the Northwest Passage, but by winter ...