Cause and Effect
Brexit and the Crisis of Europe
The 'Leave' vote in United Kingdom's referendum on membership of the European Union ('Brexit') has been greeted with concern ...
the Arctic 1818
Treaty of 1818
Fighting between Britain and the United States came to an end in 1815, with the Allies defeating Napoleon later that ...
the Arctic 1825
Britain and the United States followed their 1818 treaty by defining their boundaries with Spain and Russia. The Spanish, with ...
French invasion of Algeria
Following three years of deteriorating relations, France invaded Algiers in mid-1830. Although their swift victory would initiate over a century ...
November Uprising in Poland
When revolutions broke out in France and Belgium in 1830, the conservative Russian government decided to send its Polish Army ...
Battle of Konya
After defeating the Ottoman Empire in Syria in 1831-32, Muhammad Ali's Egyptian army invaded the Turkish heartland of Anatolia ...
North America 1835
Second Seminole War
The Seminole of Florida were the most independent of the Indian peoples marked for relocation to the west, having been ...
Accession of Queen Victoria
In 1837, King William IV of Great Britain died and was succeeded by his 18-year-old niece, Victoria. As Hanover - until ...
the Arctic 1837
By the 1830s, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated ...
North America 1837
In the north, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated ...
North America 1838
Fragmentation of Central America
A united Central America had broken away from Mexico in 1823, but remained unstable. In 1837, revolution erupted in Guatemala ...
North America 1840
Mexico was more stable than Central America, but only marginally so. Under the Centralist regime which had held sway since ...
Second Egyptian-Ottoman War
The Ottoman army attempted to reconquer Syria in 1839, but was routed by the Egyptians. To make matters even worse ...
The Egyptian rejection of the 1840 London Convention led to the Oriental Crisis, threatening the collapse of the Ottoman Empire ...
North America 1842
Conflict with the Comanche did not stop Texas from pursuing its vast territorial claims against Mexico. In 1841 the Texians ...
North America 1843
By the early 1840s, American settlers, arriving overland in increasing numbers along what became known as the Oregon Trail, were ...
North America 1845
Annexation of Texas
An even bigger flashpoint than Oregon was Texas, which wanted to join the US despite Mexican warnings that doing so ...
the Arctic 1846
Following the 1837 rebellions, the British merged the two Canadas into a single autonomous province and set about resolving their ...
North America 1846
War with Mexico encouraged President Polk to settle the Oregon dispute between the US and Britain. In June both countries ...
North America 1846
Conquest of California & New Mexico
At the outbreak of the Mexican-American War, the US had sent a cavalry force to cross the continent and a ...