End of the Crimean War
The siege of Sevastopol was poorly managed by both sides, but eventually the Allies prevailed. In 1856, under the additional ...
the Arctic 1859
Russian expeditions and settlers had been infiltrating China's Amur region since the late 1840s. After the Crimean War exposed ...
Outbreak of the Austro-Prussian War
After the war with Denmark, Austria and Prussia were left in control of Schleswig-Holstein. However the Prussian Prime Minister Otto ...
End of the German Confederation
Prussia responded swiftly to the German Federal Diet's vote for mobilization, declaring the German Confederation at an end and ...
the Arctic 1867
While the British worried about the Americans in British Columbia, the Russians had come to accept that they could not ...
North German Confederation
At the Peace of Prague, Austria accepted the end of its influence in Germany. Prussia promptly took control in the ...
Unification of Germany
On January 18, 1871, King William of Prussia was declared Emperor of Germany by the leaders of the German states ...
Treaty of Frankfurt
With the end of the Franco-Prussian War, Bismarck forced France to cede Alsace-Lorraine and pay an indemnity of 5 billion ...
the Arctic 1875
Treaty of Saint Petersburg
While the Canadians were expanding westward across their new territories, Russian and Japanese settlers were coming into conflict in Sakhalin ...
North America 1876
Great Sioux War
In 1874, gold was discovered in the Black Hills, part of the Great Sioux Reservation. When attempts by the US ...
the Arctic 1882
First International Polar Year
By the 1870s polar exploration was becoming increasingly nationalistic, but some realized that a coordinated approach involving multiple simultaneous expeditions ...
Scramble for Africa
In 1881 France alarmed Italy by seizing Tunisia. The next year Britain occupied Egypt, infuriating France - which had built and ...
German attempts to keep France isolated by maintaining alliances with the other powers of Europe began to unravel in the ...
East Asia 1895
Triple Intervention and Taiwan
Japanese gains in the Treaty of Shimonoseki conflicted with Russian interests in northern China. Less than a week after the ...
East Asia 1898
Far Eastern Crisis
When the Japanese defeated China in 1895, France, Germany, and Russia quickly pressured them to abandon most of their gains ...
Second Samoan Civil War
In 1899, Samoa broke into its second civil war in a decade, when the Germans supported a rebellion against the ...
East Asia 1899
Philippine nationalists had helped the United States in its 1898 war with Spain. However, when the Americans won that war ...
East Asia 1900
In response to the growing foreign domination of China, the isolationist Yihetuan movement - known in the west as Boxers - rose ...
East Asia 1900
Battle of Peking
The Chinese Empire considered the Eight-Nation intervention to suppress the Boxer Rebellion a violation of its sovereignty and declared war ...
Federation of Australia
The late nineteenth century saw an increasing call for federation among the Australian colonies. On 1 January 1901 they united ...