The apparent success of the European revolutions belied the divisions between the city-based reformers, who desired everything from moderate reforms ...
Southern Asia 1918
Breakup of Transcaucasia
Soon after Brest-Litovsk, Transcaucasia declared independence but its collapse was already underway. In April, communists took control in Baku in ...
German Spring Offensive
With the war against Russia ended, Germany was free to send troops from the Eastern to the Western Front. On ...
In June, in response to German movements into Finland, the British had begun landing in northern Russia. After the Czechoslovak ...
Collapse of the Central Powers
The Allied advances of August and September were too much for the Central Powers. Bulgaria accepted defeat on September 29 ...
With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Greece moved troops into western Turkey to protect the sizeable local Greek population ...
Appeasement at Munich
From March 1938, pro-Nazis in the Sudetenland, a part of Czechoslovakia with a large German population, started pressing for autonomy ...
End of Czechoslovakia
The 1938 Munich Agreement did not end German expansionism. In March 1939, Hitler encouraged the breakup of what was left ...
The unconditional surrender of Germany on May 8 marked the end of the War in Europe. The cost had been ...
After the death of Stalin in 1953, a thaw in relations between East and West allowed for the end of ...
The crises of the early '60s brought the world to the edge of nuclear war, prompting the United States and ...
Reunification of Germany
Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Bulgaria threw off Communist rule shortly after East Germany, marking the effective end of the Cold War ...
End of the Warsaw Pact
The collapse of communism in eastern Europe weakened the Warsaw Pact, which had mostly functioned as a tool for maintaining ...
The first challenge to the post-Cold War order came in August 1990, when Saddam Hussein's Iraq invaded and annexed ...
Serb attempts at "ethnic cleansing" in Bosnia led to NATO intervention and the UN occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. After this defeat ...
South Ossetia War
The collapse of Russian power in 1989-91 had allowed NATO and the EU to absorb not only the former Soviet ...