the Arctic 1818
Treaty of 1818
Fighting between Britain and the United States came to an end in 1815, with the Allies defeating Napoleon later that ...
North America 1832
Trail of Tears
In 1830, there were still five large American Indian groups living as semi-independent nations east of the Mississippi: the Cherokee ...
North America 1838
Fragmentation of Central America
A united Central America had broken away from Mexico in 1823, but remained unstable. In 1837, revolution erupted in Guatemala ...
North America 1843
By the early 1840s, American settlers, arriving overland in increasing numbers along what became known as the Oregon Trail, were ...
Having imposed peace on the Sardinians, Austria now turned to crush the revolution in Hungary - even though that country was ...
the Arctic 1850
Search for Franklin
In 1845 the renowned British explorer Sir John Franklin had set off to find the Northwest Passage, but by winter ...
North America 1852
Opening up the West
The surge in migrants heading west put increasing pressure on the Oregon Trail. To secure the Trail, the US government ...
North America 1859
Raid on Harpers Ferry
The 1850s conflict in the US over slavery was not limited to Kansas. In 1859, the abolitionist John Brown and ...
Annexation of the Two Sicilies
Having won over the island of Sicily, Garibaldi embarked for the mainland. Facing little resistance he entered the capital of ...
Second Schleswig War
The two most powerful German states were Austria and Prussia. After the German occupation of Holstein, they demanded that Denmark ...
Aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War
The Russian victory over Turkey alarmed the other Great Powers. At the Congress of Berlin, they overruled San Stefano. Russian ...
the Arctic 1882
First International Polar Year
By the 1870s polar exploration was becoming increasingly nationalistic, but some realized that a coordinated approach involving multiple simultaneous expeditions ...
Southern Asia 1905
Partition of Bengal
British India was dominated by Bengal, whose 80 million people made up over a quarter of the population of the ...
In October 1908, a new round in the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire began when Bulgaria declared independence and Austria-Hungary ...
East Asia 1914
Conquest of the German Pacific
When World War I broke out in Europe, the Anglo-Japanese Alliance meant that Japan sided with the British against Germany ...
Sub-Saharan Africa 1917
Conquest of German East Africa
By the beginning of 1917 the Allies had confined the German forces in East Africa to the bush country south ...
Southern Asia 1918
Capture of Damascus
The long stand-off between the Allies and the Ottomans in Palestine was finally ended in September with the Battle of ...
Collapse of the Central Powers
The Allied advances of August and September were too much for the Central Powers. Bulgaria accepted defeat on September 29 ...
Southern Asia 1918
Armistice of Mudros
The Allied successes in Syria and Mesopotamia had destroyed much of the Ottoman Empire's fighting power. Just as bad ...
the Arctic 1921
Wrangel Island Fiasco
While Soviet Russia faced off against the Japanese in the Far East, the Canadian explorer Vilhjalmur Stefansson led an expedition ...