The new Russian Republic was weak and unstable. On November 7 (October 25 in the old-style calendar), Vladimir Lenin's ...
End of the Great War
While the Allies were intervening in Russia, they were also mounting offensives in the west against the weakening Central Powers ...
The collapse of the other Central Powers in October 1918 left Germany alone against the Allies. In a last ditch ...
Following the German Revolution of November 1918, a republic was proclaimed and the Kaiser fled the country. On November 11 ...
Southern Asia 1918
Occupation of Constantinople
On 11 November, Germany agreed to an armistice with the Allies, bringing World War I to an end. On the ...
Whites in Retreat
Uprisings behind Denikin's stretched lines, especially by Nestor Makhno's anarchists, brought an end to the White advance in ...
Treaty of Neuilly
In November, the Bulgaria signed its Peace Treaty with the Allies. As a result, it lost territory to Yugoslavia and ...
Treaty of Rapallo
During the Great War, Italy and Serbia had been given conflicting promises of territory by the Allies. When the War ...
Southern Asia 1920
The Treaty of Sevres granted Armenia a large swathe of eastern Anatolia as reparation for the Ottoman Empire's persecution ...
North America 1921
Washington Naval Conference
Following the War, the US and Japan began expanding and modernizing their fleets. To avoid an arms race between these ...
Beer Hall Putsch
By 1923, hyperinflation was ruining the German economy and helping destroy its ability to pay war reparations. In an attempt ...
Rise of Stalin
Lenin had fallen seriously ill in 1922 and died in 1924. His followers competed for power until late 1926, when ...
1929 Sino-Soviet Conflict
By 1929, Chiang Kaishek's Nationalists were rapidly reunifying China. With Chiang's backing, the Manchurian warlord seized the part-Soviet ...
East Asia 1929
Encouraged by the Chinese Nationalist government, the Fengtian clique seized the part Soviet-administered Chinese Eastern Railway in 1929. The Soviets ...
Even more concerning to the Soviets than Japan's occupation of Manchuria, the deeply anti-Communist Adolf Hitler became German Chancellor ...
Appeasement at Munich
From March 1938, pro-Nazis in the Sudetenland, a part of Czechoslovakia with a large German population, started pressing for autonomy ...
In an attempt to match Hitler's victories, Mussolini ordered invasions of Egypt and Greece. But the Italian army was ...
Sub-Saharan Africa 1940
Battle of Gabon
While the rest of French Equatorial Africa declared for the Free French in August 1940, Gabon remained loyal to the ...
El Alamein and Operation Torch
In November, the tide turned in the Western Desert Campaign when the British defeated Rommel's Afrika Korps at El ...
Battle of Stalingrad
A week after their defeats in Africa, Germany suffered an even greater disaster on the Eastern Front when the four ...