the Arctic 1837
By the 1830s, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated ...
The Egyptian rejection of the 1840 London Convention led to the Oriental Crisis, threatening the collapse of the Ottoman Empire ...
North America 1846
Northern Mexican Theater
In contrast to the swift conquest of the west, the much larger US campaign in northern Mexico was being slowed ...
In the early 1840s, Switzerland was still more a confederation of cantons than a nation state. The leading Radical Party ...
Humiliation of Olmütz
The Erfurt Union did not last long. In autumn the Electorate of Hesse, which formed the crucial bridge between Prussia ...
Siege of Sevastopol
The Allies decided to destroy Russian power in the Black Sea by capturing the key naval base of Sevastopol, on ...
North America 1863
Dominican Restoration War
In 1861, facing bankruptcy and a potential Haitian invasion, the government of the Dominican Republic had requested re-annexation by Spain ...
South America 1874
Argentine Civil Wars
The reunification of Argentina in 1861 did not bring stability to the country, which continued to suffer from military coups ...
South America 1883
End of the War of the Pacific
By 1883, Chile was the clear victor in the War of the Pacific, occupying all the important Peruvian and Bolivian ...
Scramble for Africa
In 1881 France alarmed Italy by seizing Tunisia. The next year Britain occupied Egypt, infuriating France - which had built and ...
South America 1889
Proclamation of the Republic of Brazil
On 15 November 1889, rebelling troops under Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca seized control of the government in Rio de Janeiro ...
South America 1903
In 1902, the United States purchased the remnants of the failed French attempt to build a canal through Panama, then ...
South America 1908
Rio Branco's Treaties
The scramble for resources, especially rubber, in the South American interior in the late 19th and early 20th centuries saw ...
Southern Asia 1911
In 1910, the Chinese Empire reasserted itself and occupied Tibet. However, this would be the decadent Empire's last triumph ...
Southern Asia 1914
Outbreak of the Great War
The end of July saw the outbreak of World War I in Europe, pitting Russia, France, and Britain against Germany ...
Central Power Breakthrough in the East
Italy joined the Allies in May, but the rest of the year favored the Central Powers. In August the Germans ...
Southern Asia 1915
The Allies were already having difficulties with German-assisted Persian uprisings, now the ease with which the German expedition to Afghanistan ...
Southern Asia 1916
Pacification of South Persia
Back in Persia, the Ottomans had rolled back the Russian offensive and taken Hamadan. However the British were finally prepared ...
The new Russian Republic was weak and unstable. On November 7 (October 25 in the old-style calendar), Vladimir Lenin's ...
Southern Asia 1917
Unfortunately for the Allies, the new Russian Republic which had arisen after the February Revolution was weak and unstable. On ...