Convention of Kütahya
The 1832 Egyptian victory over the Ottoman Empire at Konya left Constantinople defenseless, driving the Sultan to request Russian support ...
North America 1846
Outbreak of the Mexican-American War
With the annexation of Texas, the US inherited that state's boundary dispute with Mexico. In a bid to settle ...
The call for German unification had led to nationalists congregating in Frankfurt to establish a national assembly and work on ...
In Germany, the National Assembly in Frankfurt had produced a constitution for a new German Empire with King Frederick William ...
Alliance of the Three Kings
Prussia responded swiftly to the uprisings in Germany, crushing rebellions in Saxony and the Prussian Rhineland. With its supporters cowed ...
Expedition of the Thousand
In return for French support, Sardinia ceded Savoy and Nice to France. Free to move south, the Sardinians secretly sent ...
North America 1862
Capture of New Orleans
Union successes in Tennessee forced the Confederates to send troops and materiel north up the Mississippi River, stripping their defenses ...
Treaty of Frankfurt
With the end of the Franco-Prussian War, Bismarck forced France to cede Alsace-Lorraine and pay an indemnity of 5 billion ...
the Arctic 1875
Treaty of Saint Petersburg
While the Canadians were expanding westward across their new territories, Russian and Japanese settlers were coming into conflict in Sakhalin ...
North America 1895
Nicaragua and Venezuela Crises
In 1894, Nicaragua annexed the Mosquito Reserve, violating a previous treaty with Great Britain. In response, the British occupied Corinto ...
East Asia 1895
Triple Intervention and Taiwan
Japanese gains in the Treaty of Shimonoseki conflicted with Russian interests in northern China. Less than a week after the ...
North America 1900
Thousand Days' War
The Spanish-American War gave the US an empire in the Caribbean and the Pacific and marked its emergence as a ...
North America 1904
The American gains against Spain increased its interest in procuring a Central American canal to link its Atlantic and Pacific ...
Battle of Tsushima
Japanese naval dominance in the east allowed them to occupy Korea and land in south Manchuria. After a long siege ...
North America 1911
Mexico had been stable for four decades, most of that time under the presidency of Porfirio Diaz. But by 1910 ...
In October 1911, Italy invaded the Ottoman Turkish provinces in North Africa. The Italians quickly conquered the coastal cities but ...
Southern Asia 1916
Russian Invasion of Anatolia
With the British evacuating Gallipoli and in trouble at Kut, many Ottoman troops could now be sent to the Caucasus ...
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
On December 15, 1917, Lenin, desperate for peace and stability, signed an armistice with the Central Powers. This led to ...
Southern Asia 1918
Breakup of Transcaucasia
Soon after Brest-Litovsk, Transcaucasia declared independence but its collapse was already underway. In April, communists took control in Baku in ...
Large numbers of Czechs and Slovaks had joined the Russians during the War, forming a Czechoslovak Legion to fight for ...