North America 1847
Siege of Veracruz
Despite the US victories in the north, the Mexican army remained intact. Rather than continuing to march south, the US ...
The success of the French and Italian revolutions helped inspire uprisings across the German Confederation, with nationalists calling for a ...
Battle of Novara
Revolutionary feeling was still strong in the Italian states, prompting the Pope to flee Rome in November and leading to ...
Outbreak of the Crimean War
In 1853, Russia occupied the Ottoman vassal states of Moldavia and Wallachia. After the Russians refused an ultimatum to withdraw ...
the Arctic 1854
Opening of Japan
Across the Pacific, Japan had kept itself closed off from the world since the 17th century, restricting its contact with ...
End of the Crimean War
The siege of Sevastopol was poorly managed by both sides, but eventually the Allies prevailed. In 1856, under the additional ...
Kingdom of Italy
The conquest of the Two Sicilies left the Kingdom of Sardinia in control of the entire Italian peninsula except for ...
North America 1863
French Intervention in Mexico
Bankrupt after its Reform War, Mexico had suspended its debt repayments in 1861, prompting Spain, France and Britain to occupy ...
the Arctic 1867
While the British worried about the Americans in British Columbia, the Russians had come to accept that they could not ...
Treaty of San Stefano
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877-8 began slowly, but by early 1878 the Russians had broken through. At the Treaty of ...
South America 1887
When gold was discovered in the Guianas in the early 1880s, thousands of prospectors flocked to the region. Taking advantage ...
Second Samoan Civil War
In 1899, Samoa broke into its second civil war in a decade, when the Germans supported a rebellion against the ...
Germany viewed the Entente Cordiale as a threat and tried to exploit the tensions caused by the war between Russia ...
East Asia 1912
Yuan Shikai and the Republic of China
The Chinese revolutionary leader Sun Yatsen declared a republic in January 1912, but to avoid bloodshed he came to a ...
By February 1917 (according to the old style Julian calendar still in use in Russia), the Tsarist system was on ...
Southern Asia 1917
The securing of South Persia allowed the British to return their focus to Mesopotamia. In early 1917 they recaptured Kut ...
Southern Asia 1918
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Transcaucasia's armistice with the Ottomans broke down in February 1918, by which point the Bolsheviks had largely secured their ...
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
With Russia helpless against the German advance, Lenin was forced to pay a high price for peace. On 3 March ...
Limits of Soviet Expansion
With their success in Russia, the Bolsheviks had hoped to spread the Revolution across Europe. However, their setbacks in the ...
South America 1922
In 1922, Colombia and Peru signed the Salomón–Lozano Treaty to resolve their long-standing border dispute. However, Peru - which had ...