Cause and Effect
Brexit and the Crisis of Europe
The 'Leave' vote in United Kingdom's referendum on membership of the European Union ('Brexit') has been greeted with concern ...
First Carlist War
Opposition to liberal reforms in Spain led to an uprising in 1833, with the pro-absolutist Carlists supporting the claim of ...
Accession of Queen Victoria
In 1837, King William IV of Great Britain died and was succeeded by his 18-year-old niece, Victoria. As Hanover - until ...
North America 1846
War with Mexico encouraged President Polk to settle the Oregon dispute between the US and Britain. In June both countries ...
the Arctic 1846
Following the 1837 rebellions, the British merged the two Canadas into a single autonomous province and set about resolving their ...
The apparent success of the European revolutions belied the divisions between the city-based reformers, who desired everything from moderate reforms ...
Battle of Magenta
In April 1859 Sardinia deliberately provoked an Austrian invasion, giving the French under Napoleon III an excuse to rush to ...
North America 1864
Second Mexican Empire
Despite fierce opposition, France took Mexico City in 1863, backing the creation of a new Mexican Empire. Napoleon III's ...
Outbreak of the Austro-Prussian War
After the war with Denmark, Austria and Prussia were left in control of Schleswig-Holstein. However the Prussian Prime Minister Otto ...
End of the German Confederation
Prussia responded swiftly to the German Federal Diet's vote for mobilization, declaring the German Confederation at an end and ...
North America 1876
Great Sioux War
In 1874, gold was discovered in the Black Hills, part of the Great Sioux Reservation. When attempts by the US ...
East Asia 1894
Donghak Peasant Revolution
In 1894, peasants and followers of the Donghak religious movement revolted against corrupt government officials in Korea. Alarmed, the Korean ...
the Arctic 1898
Klondike Gold Rush
On August 16, 1896, gold was discovered on the Yukon River, in the Klondike region of Canada's North-West Territories ...
East Asia 1898
In response to American support of Cuban revolutionaries, Spain declared war on the United States in April 1898. However the ...
East Asia 1899
Philippine nationalists had helped the United States in its 1898 war with Spain. However, when the Americans won that war ...
East Asia 1900
In response to the growing foreign domination of China, the isolationist Yihetuan movement - known in the west as Boxers - rose ...
the Arctic 1905
After more than ninety years of personal union, Norway split from Sweden in 1905. Despite initial tensions, war was averted ...
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Serbia's sudden expansion in the Balkan Wars increased tensions between it and Austria-Hungary, which had a significant Serb minority ...
East Asia 1916
China's Warlord Era Begins
Misjudging national sentiment, Yuan Shikai declared himself Emperor in December 1915. It was a huge blunder. Almost immediately the southern ...
Southern Asia 1918
German Caucasus Expedition
The collapse of the Transcaucasian Federation in the face of Ottoman invasion encouraged newly independent Georgia to seek German protection ...