Cause and Effect
The 2016 Turkish Coup Attempt
On the night of 15 July 2016, elements of the Turkish Army made a bid to seize control in cities ...
When King João VI of Portugal died in 1826, a succession dispute arose between the king's eldest son, Pedro ...
Second Egyptian-Ottoman War
The Ottoman army attempted to reconquer Syria in 1839, but was routed by the Egyptians. To make matters even worse ...
First Battle of Custoza
By July, the Austrian forces in Italy had retaken most of Venetia and were ready to launch an all-out attack ...
Fall of the Last Roman Republic
The formation of the new Roman Republic and expulsion of the Pope had been an affront to the Catholic powers ...
North America 1861
First Battle of Bull Run
The attack on Fort Sumter aroused southern patriotism and encouraged Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee to declare for the ...
the Arctic 1862
Gold Rushes in the Pacific Northwest
For some time after the Oregon Treaty, Britain's naval base on Vancouver Island was its only major presence in ...
North America 1863
Vicksburg and Gettysburg
After a stunning victory at Chancellorsville, Lee's Army of Northern Virginia struck north into Pennsylvania only to be decisively ...
Sadowa and its Aftermath
Three weeks into the war, invading Prussian armies crushed the Austrians at Sadowa (Königgrätz). Austria was forced to divert troops ...
North America 1867
US expansionism, its purchase of Alaska and its alleged support of Irish Republican Fenian raiders encouraged the British to listen ...
the Arctic 1870
Rupert's Land Act
The threat posed by the Alaska Purchase helped encourage the British to assent to the creation of a united, self-governing ...
North America 1870
Rupert's Land Act
Canada quickly expanded as Britain began to transfer its other North American possessions to the dominion. First up were Rupert ...
South America 1881
Partition of Patagonia
When the War of the Pacific broke out in 1879, the Argentinians declared neutrality but remained sympathetic to Bolivia and ...
North America 1882
The 1849 Mexican-American War had placed the Apache and other tribes of the southwest under US jurisdiction. Over the following ...
South America 1899
Republic of Acre
During the 1890s, thousands of Brazilian workers traveled up the Amazon to the Bolivian-claimed region of Acre in search of ...
Southern Asia 1909
Persian Constitutional Revolution
News of the Anglo-Russian agreement provoked unrest in Persia, prompting its pro-Russian Shah to roll back recent reforms and arrest ...
In 1911, France sent troops to suppress a rebellion in Morocco. Germany promptly claimed the 1906 Algeciras Agreement had been ...
East Asia 1913
Second Chinese Revolution
Although military strongman Yuan Shikai had been made provisional president of the new Republic of China to preserve peace, he ...
Southern Asia 1913
By now the British dominated the Persian Gulf and the southern Arabian peninsula. To secure its gains in these regions ...
Second Balkan War
Bulgaria had gained much territory in the war against the Ottomans, but less than what it had been promised. In ...