North America 1840
Mexico was more stable than Central America, but only marginally so. Under the Centralist regime which had held sway since ...
By the late 1850s, the cause of Italian unification was drawing widespread support from intellectuals and radicals across Europe. After ...
North America 1866
French withdrawal from Mexico
The defeat of the Confederacy allowed the United States to pressure the French to end their intervention in Mexico. Napoleon ...
the Arctic 1869
In Japan, the instability which had followed the arrival of Perry's ships had ultimately led to the termination of ...
Unification of Germany
On January 18, 1871, King William of Prussia was declared Emperor of Germany by the leaders of the German states ...
The 1870s saw increasing dissent in the Balkans against Ottoman rule. Meanwhile, Russia had taken advantage of the disruption caused ...
German attempts to keep France isolated by maintaining alliances with the other powers of Europe began to unravel in the ...
Federation of Australia
The late nineteenth century saw an increasing call for federation among the Australian colonies. On 1 January 1901 they united ...
Southern Asia 1902
By the early 1890s, the Emirate of Ha'il had risen to dominate the Arabian interior, conquering the rival Emirate ...
East Asia 1902
During the Boxer Rebellion, Russia had occupied Manchuria. Suspicious of Russian intentions in the region and wary of its alliance ...
South America 1903
Second Venezuela Crisis
Following Venezuela's refusal to pay its foreign debts, Britain, Germany, and Italy blockaded the country in late 1902, seizing ...
North America 1914
Political instability in the Caribbean and Central America continued into the 1910s, prompting further US military interventions as it sought ...
East Asia 1915
Japan's Twenty-One Demands
Early in World War I, Japan seized the German Kiautschou Bay concession in eastern China. The next year they presented ...
Southern Asia 1915
Ottoman Raids in Persia and Sinai
The defeat at Sarikamish did not end smaller scale Ottoman offensives, with one Turkish unit even managing to briefly capture ...
Southern Asia 1916
Siege of Kut
The British had consolidated control over the Persian Gulf at the start of the War by invading southern Mesopotamia. In ...
Collapse of the Eastern Front
The Brusilov Offensive was to be Russia's last major campaign of the War. Its nearest ally, Romania, was quickly ...
January Revolt in Germany
Following the 1918 armistice with Germany, American, Belgian, British, and French troops moved into the German Rhineland. Meanwhile the Workers ...
End of Kolchak
By January 1920, Kolchak's Siberian White forces were disintegrating. Revolts cut off their retreat and Kolchak resigned on January ...
Communist Tuva and Mongolia
With the assistance of Mongolian revolutionaries, Soviet forces expelled von Sternberg, leading to the creation of communist regimes in Tuva ...
Death of Lenin
Following a number of strokes and possibly still weakened from a 1918 assassination attempt, Lenin died a year after the ...