the Arctic 1825
Britain and the United States followed their 1818 treaty by defining their boundaries with Spain and Russia. The Spanish, with ...
November Uprising in Poland
When revolutions broke out in France and Belgium in 1830, the conservative Russian government decided to send its Polish Army ...
First Egyptian-Ottoman War
In return for assisting the Ottoman Empire in Greece, Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali - nominally an Ottoman governor - demanded he be ...
North America 1848
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The fall of Mexico City spelled the end of the Mexican-American War. At the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the US ...
Year of Revolution Begins
By 1848, Europe was already experiencing considerable social tension, in good part due to the rise of industrialization but also ...
North America 1849
California Gold Rush
Just days before the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in California ...
North America 1861
Confederate States of America
The secession of South Carolina prompted the other Deep South states to follow suit and by early February six more ...
East Asia 1897
Over the 19th century, increasing access to the outside world had led to the growth of revolutionary movements in the ...
Outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War
Russia's tightening influence in Manchuria and Korea led to tensions with Japan. With the Russians also building the Trans-Siberian ...
East Asia 1904
Attack on Port Arthur
The 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance freed Japan from the fear of war with a coalition of European powers. Emboldened, they moved ...
Battle of Verdun
In February 1916, the Germans launched an attack on Verdun. The German plan was not so much to take the ...
The Bolsheviks consolidated their hold over the former Russian Empire and declared the creation of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet ...
The end of the First World War had slowly led to the withdrawal of German troops. Finally free from pressure ...
On November 15, 1920, the remaining White forces in the west evacuated the Crimea. This marked a new phase in ...
East Asia 1922
Washington Naval Conference
Growing tensions between the U.S., Britain, and Japan over fleet construction led to the Washington Naval Conference, the world ...
East Asia 1932
Creation of Manchukuo
The Japanese Army, moving without orders from the government in Tokyo, used the Mukden Incident as an excuse to invade ...
Southern Asia 1935
In the 1920s, Mussolini's Fascists had risen to power in Italy, adopting an increasingly aggressive foreign policy. In 1934 ...
By late 1940, Mussolini's invasion of Greece had become a debacle, with the Greeks instead invading Italian Albania. Meanwhile ...
Southern Asia 1942
Fall of Singapore
By February 1942 the Japanese forces invading Malaya had reached the perimeter of Singapore, Britain’s most important military base ...
On December 5, Soviet reinforcements from Siberia attacked the German troops around Moscow. Further counterattacks over December and January pushed ...