First Egyptian-Ottoman War
In return for assisting the Ottoman Empire in Greece, Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali - nominally an Ottoman governor - demanded he be ...
North America 1835
Second Seminole War
The Seminole of Florida were the most independent of the Indian peoples marked for relocation to the west, having been ...
North America 1837
In the north, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated ...
North America 1845
Annexation of Texas
An even bigger flashpoint than Oregon was Texas, which wanted to join the US despite Mexican warnings that doing so ...
Rise of Napoleon III
In France, the new republic held the first French presidential election. The winner was Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon I ...
Second French Empire
While the King of Prussia was backing down in Germany, the ambitious French President Louis-Napoleon was consolidating power in France ...
North America 1853
Even as California was being accepted into the Union, a new dispute was breaking out between the US and Mexico ...
North America 1855
In 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act created the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening them up for settlement and granting ...
Unification of Central Italy
The Second Italian War of Independence was officially ended at Treaty of Zurich, which gave Lombardy to Sardinia. A further ...
North America 1860
Secession of South Carolina
By 1860, the rift between the slave states of the southern United States and the free states of the north ...
North America 1861
Fight for Kentucky
When the Civil War broke out, Kentucky had declared neutrality. This situation lasted for over three months, until a Confederate ...
Schleswig and Holstein were two largely German duchies which had long been ruled by Denmark. In 1863 the Danes revised ...
North America 1864
Sherman's March to the Sea
In 1864, the Union armies were placed under the command of Ulysses S. Grant, hero of Vicksburg. Grant attacked the ...
North America 1866
Red Cloud's War
Following the Civil War, the US government moved to confine the Indians of the west to reservations, buying up their ...
North German Confederation
At the Peace of Prague, Austria accepted the end of its influence in Germany. Prussia promptly took control in the ...
North America 1890
Wounded Knee Massacre
By 1890, American Indian resistance in the western United States had been crushed and settlers and railways had closed the ...
East Asia 1898
Treaty of Paris
American gains in the Spanish-American War were confirmed at the Treaty of Paris, ceding Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and ...
North America 1907
Great White Fleet
In 1902-03, Britain, Germany and Italy had blockaded Venezuela when it refused to repay its foreign debts. In response, US ...
East Asia 1911
China had suffered endless humiliations since the mid 19th century, with the once powerful Qing dynasty unable to hold back ...
Southern Asia 1911
Strangling of Persia
Endeavoring to modernize, the new constitutional Persian government hired American advisors. Russia responded first by orchestrating the return of the ...