North America 1836
By the 1830s the Mexican border region of Texas had become dominated by settlers from the neighboring US. When, in ...
First Italian War of Independence
When news of Metternich's flight reached Italy, Milan and Venice seized the opportunity to throw off Austrian rule. Italian ...
Hungarian War of Independence
Austria's success in Italy was not matched in Hungary, where the revolution had been reignited when the Austrian government ...
The restoration of Austrian power in Hungary and northern Italy encouraged Hanover and Saxony to abandon their alliance with Prussia ...
The Great Game
The Crimean War halted Russian expansion against Turkey for two decades, but Russian consolidation in the Caucasus and expansion into ...
North America 1857
For many US citizens, the Mexican-American War had demonstrated that conquering Latin America was both easy and the natural destiny ...
North America 1861
Attack on Fort Sumter
Despite the Confederacy's declaration of independence, the United States Army still garrisoned a number of forts in the south ...
North America 1862
Battle of Shiloh
Moving through Kentucky down the Tennessee River, the US took the fight in the west to the Confederacy. In an ...
North America 1865
Surrender of Army of Northern Virginia
Having consolidated in Georgia, Sherman turned north to invade the Carolinas and link up with Union forces in Virginia. Meanwhile ...
North America 1885
In the Canadian northwest, tensions between the mixed ancestry Métis and the encroaching government led to a rebellion under Louis ...
East Asia 1895
Treaty of Shimonoseki
After defeating the Chinese in Korea in 1894, Japanese forces invaded China itself, occupying the Liaodong Peninsula and destroying the ...
East Asia 1898
Far Eastern Crisis
When the Japanese defeated China in 1895, France, Germany, and Russia quickly pressured them to abandon most of their gains ...
The Anglo-French rivalry had been a constant of European affairs for centuries. In 1904, however, Britain's newfound ally, Japan ...
East Asia 1907
Anglo-French Agreement on Siam
The Russo-Japanese War had threatened to embroil France and Britain, the allies of the two combatants. To preserve the peace ...
the Arctic 1909
Race to the North Pole
In 1909 American explorer Robert Peary claimed to be the first to reach the North Pole. Although modern research suggests ...
First Balkan War
Seeing how weak the Ottoman Turks were in their fight against Italy, an alliance of Balkan states launched an invasion ...
The Ottoman Turks had entered the War on the side of Germany in October 1914, threatening the Suez Canal and ...
Southern Asia 1915
By 1915, the War in Europe had reached a stalemate in the West while Russia faced increasing pressure in the ...
North America 1916
Pancho Villa Expedition
The coalition that had deposed Huerta collapsed soon after taking Mexico City. A year of fighting followed, in which the ...
the Arctic 1917
Great War and the Arctic
In 1914 the Great War broke out in Europe. While the United States kept out of the War for the ...