Southern Asia 1919.0809
Indian independence movement, Turkish war of independence, Middle East transformed (9 August 1919)
Historical Map of South & Southwest Asia
Only one day after accepting Afghan independence, Britain forced Persia, still under occupation after World War I, to sign the secret Anglo-Persian Agreement - guaranteeing British access to Persian oilfields and effectively placing the Persian government under British supervision. However word of the agreement soon leaked out, leading to rioting and the eventual overthrow of the Persian government.
Changes to the map 11 June 1919 - 09 August 1919
Persia: The Shah has accepted British influence and British forces are now withdrawing. In the northwest, Simko Shikak is leading a Kurdish revolt.
Afghanistan: The Third Anglo-Afghan War has ended and Afghanistan is now recognized as an independent state by Britain.
Turkish War of Independence: Turkish nationalists have responded to Mustafa Kemal's call for independence at Erzurum, most notably in Erzurum, Sivas, Van, Trabzon, and Bitlis Vilayets.
Transcaucasia: Pro-Turkish uprisings have forced the Armenians to withdraw from Nakhichevan and Norashen. In Mughan, Mughani rebels have recaptured Lankaran and overthrown the Mughan Soviet Republic.
British Protectorates in the Persian Gulf
The British Residency of the Persian Gulf maintains British India influence in a number of Gulf states. These states are nominally independent - and shown as such in most atlases from the period - but have all signed treaties guaranteeing British control over their foreign affairs.
The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman is the only one of these states with significant international relations, having obtained trade agreements with the US and France before it signed its treaty with Britain. Maps of the time often show Trucial Oman and even Qatar as regions of Oman.
Trucial Oman is the region to the west of Oman which collectively signed treaties with Britain. The sheikhdoms of this region are often called the Trucial States, and will become the United Arab Emirates. However at this time they have little unity, with no regional council until 1952.
The British Indian Empire, also known as the British Raj, is comprised of a complex of presidencies, provinces, protectorates, and agencies. Only the top level subdivisions are shown here.
The area under direct British rule is known as British India and made up of presidencies and provinces - a presidency simply being the name for an older province.
Outside British India, but often included within the sphere of the presidencies/provinces, are the hundreds of protectorates or 'princely states'. These are indirectly ruled states, the largest being Hyderabad, Kashmir, and Mysore. The others are either collected into agencies - which may in turn contain other smaller agencies - or fall under the sway of the provinces.
Treaty of Versailles
Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles, officially ending its state of war with the Allied Powers. The treaty requires Germany to accept War Guilt, disarm, cede 65,000 square km of territory containing 7 million people to its neighbors, and pay considerable reparations (assessed to be 132 billion Marks in 1921).
Turkish Revolutionaries assemble in Erzurum, eastern Turkey, in accordance with the previously issued Amasya Circular, to affirm Turkish independence. Mustafa Kemal is elected chairman of the congress, despite the Sultanate's call for his arrest. The congress declares the indivisibility of the Turkish motherland and that the Turks will resist all foreign invasion or intervention.
Vosooghoddoleh, Prime Minister of Persia, signs a secret agreement issued by British Foreign Secretary Earl Curzon, guaranteeing British access to the Persian oilfields, accepting British guidance in financial and military affairs, and giving Britain rights to survey and build railways. The agreement is not ratified by the Majlis and, when word of it gets out, is widely denounced.