Salomón–Lozano Treaty

Border disputes and the Powers

South America 1922.0324

Salomón–Lozano Treaty

The Acre dispute, Venezuela crises, South America in WWI, and the Chaco War (24 March 1922)

Historical Map of South American nations

In 1922, Colombia and Peru signed the Salomón–Lozano Treaty to resolve their long-standing border dispute. However, Peru - which had been pressured by the US to accept the treaty - was unhappy with giving up the Amazonian port of Leticia, and factions in the country would continue to contest the agreement for another 12 years. Ecuador, on the other hand, was disturbed by the treaty, as the extensive territory that Peru had gained clearly threatened its own claims.

Main Events

Armistice of Compiègne

At 5am Paris time, Germany signed an armistice with the Allies in railway carriage No. 2419 D at Compiègne, France, to end its involvement in World War I. The armistice went into effect at 11am and, although not a formal surrender, demanded that the Germans withdraw their troops to behind their own borders, renounce the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, release all prisoners, promise to pay reparations, and surrender their fleet and materials.

End of Mexican Revolution

Following a successful military campaign, General Álvaro Obregón was inaugurated as President of Mexico, bringing an end to the Mexican Revolution.

Thomson-Urrutia Treaty

The United States ratified the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty with Colombia. By the terms of the treaty, the US paid Colombia 25 million dollars in return for Colombia's recognition of Panama's independence. Although the agreement had been negotiated and signed by both countries on 6 April 1914 and ratified by Colombia on 9 June of that year, political opposition due to the imperialist nature of the deal and the advent of World War I meant that it was not until 1921 that a modified version of the treaty was ratified in the US. Colombia would ratify the revised version on 13 October 1921.

Republic of Central America

On 19 January 1921, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras signed a Pact of Union in San José, Costa Rica, to form a second Federation of Central America. The Federation was declared at Tegucigalpa, Honduras, in June, by which time Costa Rica had rejected the pact. In October it was renamed as the Republic of Central America, but would only last a few more months. Guatemala left in January 1922, followed by El Salvador and Honduras early the next month.

Federal District of Brazil

On 18 January 1922, President Epitácio Pessoa of Brazil issued Decree 4494, setting aside an area in the east of the state of Goiás for the future federal capital of Brazil - to be called Brasília ever since the idea of a capital in the interior was first proposed in 1823. A caravan led by Goiás railroad director Baldwin Ernesto de Almeida engineer immediately set out, and, on 7 September, laid a foundation stone on Centenary Hill, nine kilometers from Planaltina. Brasília itself would eventually be founded 38 years later, in 1960.

Salomón–Lozano Treaty

Representatives of Colombia and Peru signed the United States-mediated Salomón–Lozano Treaty, finally settling their long-standing border dispute and establishing the Putumayo River as the boundary between the two countries. The treaty also ceded the Amazonian port of Leticia - a Peruvian settlement - to Colombia, contributing to its unpopularity in Peru; indeed, it was only in December 1927 that the Peruvian Congress would finally ratify the agreement and Peruvian President Augusto Leguía would be overthrown soon after withdrawing from Leticia in 1930. The treaty alarmed Ecuador, which saw Peruvian claims surrounding its eastern frontier confirmed.

About this map     Download map