Revolution in Europe

The Russian Civil War: The White Phase

Russia 1919.043

Revolution in Europe

The Russian Civil War: The Bolsheviks against the White Movement (30 April 1919)

Historical Map of Russia & the former Soviet Union

The successes of Soviet Russia inspired dreams and fears of revolution in war-weary Europe. The most serious outbreaks were in Hungary and Germany. However, there were no long term successes. Bela Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic lasted half a year before being crushed by Romania. None of the numerous revolutions across Germany survived more than a month.

Main Events

German Revolution

In response to the unauthorized 24 October 1918 German naval command directive to engage the Royal Navy in a final battle, sailors mutinied in Wilhelmshaven and Kiel. On 4 November the mutineers took control of Kiel, encouraging seamen, soldiers, and urban workers across the country to also rise in revolt against the imperial order. By 9 November, workers' and soldiers' councils had taken power in most of Germany's cities and a republic was declared.

Bolsheviks take Kiev

British withdrawal from Transcaspian region

British withdraw from Transcaspian region via Ashqabad.

Hungarian Soviet Republic proclaimed

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