Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 14 Apr 1907 (American Empire: Nicaragua-Honduras War), showing the following events: US protectorate over Dominican Republic; Battle of Tsushima; Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan; Keewatin joins NW Territories; Mexican Clipperton colony; Second Occupation of Cuba; Nicaragua-Honduras War.

Nicaragua-Honduras War

American Empire

North America 1907.0414

Nicaragua-Honduras War

The Spanish-American War, the Banana Wars, the Mexican Revolution, World War I and the Great Depression (14 April 1907)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

Central American instability came to a head in 1907, when Nicaragua invaded and occupied Honduras. Fed up with the endless conflict in the region, the US stepped in, pushing the five independent Central American states to agree to a peace conference and establish a Court of Justice to resolve future disputes.

Main Events

US protectorate over Dominican Republic

After repeated revolts, the Dominican Republic was on the brink of defaulting on its debts, prompting France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands to send warships to Santo Domingo to press the claims of their nationals in 1904. To preempt European intervention, US President Theodore Roosevelt declared that the United States would assume responsibility for ensuring that the Latin American nations met their financial obligations - the 'Roosevelt Corollary' to the Monroe Doctrine. Under this corollary, the US took over the Dominican Republic's customs house in March 1905, bringing its debt under control.

Battle of Tsushima

The Russian Baltic Fleet under Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky, having traveled 18,000 nautical miles to reach the Far East, approached the Straits of Tsushima in an attempt to pass into the port of Vladivostok. Here they were spotted by the Japanese Combined Fleet of Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō, which engaged them in battle, sinking 7 of the 11 Russian battleships for no major losses. The remnants of the Russian fleet were mostly destroyed or captured the following day, with only three warships making it through to Vladivostok.

Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan

The North-West Territorial districts of Alberta and Saskatchewan became the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. At the same time, the District of Keewatin was restored to the North-West Territories.

Keewatin joins NW Territories

The Canadian District of Keewatin ceased to be a distinct territory, becoming instead one of four districts in the Northwest Territories; the other three districts being Franklin, Mackenzie, and Ungava.

Mexican Clipperton colony

In 1906, the Mexican government attempted to colonize Clipperton Island in conjunction with the British Pacific Islands Company, with the intent of mining guano. Finding only low-quality guano, the company ended its operations in 1908; the colonists were further isolated when their supply ship - the Tampico - was captured by Mexican revolutionaries in 1914. After facing famine and scurvy, most of the remaining men drowned in an attempt to get help in October 1916, leaving the lighthouse keeper alone with 15 women and children. He took advantage of the situation to institute a reign of terror, but was killed by one of his victims just before the survivors were rescued by the USS Yorktown in July 1917.

Second Occupation of Cuba

Unable to handle Pino Guerra's revolt in Cuba and unwilling to accept US demands for a new election, the entire cabinet of President Tomás Estrada Palma resigned at 9pm on 28 September 1906, prompting a direct US intervention in the country. The next day, more than 2,000 marines disembarked from the battleship USS Louisiana, marking the beginning of a 27-month occupation with US Secretary of State William H. Taft as initial Provisional Governor. The rebels saw the US arrival as a sign of success and offered no resistance, allowing for the election of José Miguel Gómez as the new Cuban President in November 1908.

Nicaragua-Honduras War

Nicaragua's dictator José Santos Zelaya invaded Honduras in support of Honduran insurgents, destroying a combined Honduran-Salvadoran army with machine guns (the first usage of those of those weapons in Central America). The Nicaraguans soon entered Tegucigalpa, prompting Honduran President Manuel Bonilla to flee to the Pacific port of Amapala, where he gained refuge aboard the USS Chicago. The United States intervened to arrange a final peace settlement, pushing Zelaya to accept a compromise regime under General Miguel Dávila.

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