Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 29 Dec 1890 (Closing the Frontier: Wounded Knee Massacre), showing the following events: Panama crisis; Geronimo's final surrender; Venezuela severs relations with Britain; Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act; North & South Dakota become US states; Montana becomes US state; Washington becomes US state; Oklahoma Territory created; Idaho becomes US state; Wyoming becomes US state; Wounded Knee Massacre.

Wounded Knee Massacre

Closing the Frontier

North America 1890.1229

Wounded Knee Massacre

The end of the French Intervention in Mexico, Reconstruction, the foundation of Canada, the Indian Wars and the westward expansion of the United States (29 December 1890)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

By 1890, American Indian resistance in the western United States had been crushed and settlers and railways had closed the frontier. In this environment of despair, the apocalyptic Ghost Dance religion spread quickly among Indian communities from California to Oklahoma, alarming white authorities. When, in December, 500 US Cavalry intercepted a group of 350 Lakota, mostly Ghost Dance practitioners, in South Dakota, tensions quickly led to a one-sided battle at Wounded Knee. This massacre was the last major conflict of the Indian Wars.

Main Events

Panama crisis

United States intervenes in Panama to restore order; Chile sends in cruiser as show of force

Geronimo's final surrender

Apache leader Geronimo and his band officially surrender to US General Miles at Skeleton Canyon, Arizona

Venezuela severs relations with Britain

Venezuela severs diplomatic relations with Great Britain over border dispute with British Guiana

Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act

Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act defines boundary between Ontario and Manitoba

North & South Dakota become US states

Dakota Territory split in two and admitted to the US as the states of North Dakota and South Dakota

Montana becomes US state

Montana Territory admitted to the US as state of Montana

Washington becomes US state

Washington Territory admitted to US as state of Washington

Oklahoma Territory created

Oklahoma Territory organized from western portion of Indian Territory

Idaho becomes US state

Idaho Territory admitted to US as state of Idaho

Wyoming becomes US state

Wyoming Territory admitted to US as state of Wyoming

Wounded Knee Massacre

US 7th Cavalry kill about 300 Lakota near Wounded Knee Creek

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