Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 26 Oct 1838 (Successors of New Spain: Fragmentation of Central America), showing the following events: Republic of Canada; Patriot War; Independence of Los Altos; Nicaraguan Independence; Iowa Territory formed; Cordova Rebellion; Texan Cherokee War; Honduran Independence.

Fragmentation of Central America

Successors of New Spain

North America 1838.1026

Fragmentation of Central America

Texas Revolution, Latin American independence (26 October 1838)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

A united Central America had broken away from Mexico in 1823, but remained unstable. In 1837, revolution erupted in Guatemala - by far the most populous state in the federation - leading both to the fall of Guatemala City and the brief independence of Los Altos. Just as the federal government in San Salvador had regained control of Guatemala, Nicaragua and Honduras seceded, followed soon after by Costa Rica. For over a year, civil war raged across the isthmus, before San Salvador finally admitted defeat and let the states go their own way.

Main Events

Republic of Canada

Canadian rebels, fleeing from their failed uprising in the British Colony of Upper Canada and led by William Lyon Mackenzie, establish the Republic of Canada on Navy Island in the Niagara River, on the border with the United States of America. On December 29, they come under assault from British Canadian militiamen under Royal Navy Commander Andrew Drew. Drew eventually forces the rebels to retreat to Buffalo, New York, where they are captured by the US army.

Patriot War

The Patriot movement induces over 40,000 men into an American-Canadian secret association, the "Hunter's Lodge", across the north-eastern United States in support of the 1837 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. The militants launch several raids into the Canadian colonies, but are ultimately dispersed by US and British forces.

Independence of Los Altos

Secessionists in Quetzaltenango, in the state of Guatemala in the Federal Republic of Central America, declare the independent State of Los Altos - only a day after the occupation of Guatemala City by the revolutionary forces of Rafael Carrera. With Carrera's temporary defeat, they join the Central American union.

Nicaraguan Independence

The state of Nicaragua separates from the Federal Republic of Central America, beginning the disintegration of the union.

Iowa Territory formed

The Iowa District of western Wisconsin Territory, United States of America, is split off to become the Territory of Iowa.

Cordova Rebellion

Armed Tejanos led by Vicente Cordova are encountered by Texians several times in the vicinity of Nacogdoches, Republic of Texas, prompting fears of a pro-Mexican rebellion in eastern Texas. These encounters culminate in a battle on March 29, 1839, when a company of 80 men under General Edward Burleson defeats Cordova and his followers at Seguin.

Texan Cherokee War

Cherokee massacre 18 white settlers, including the Killough family, in disputed land in the eastern part of the Republic of Texas. The following year, Texas Rangers catch a Mexican agent and his party of Mexicans and Indians, discovering letters which implicate the Cherokee in the Cordova Rebellion. This prompts Texas President Mirabeau Lamar to demand that Cherokee settled in Texas move to the United States Indian Territory in return for payments. The Cherokee initially agree, however conflict erupts when their armed Texian escort arrives. Some 100 Cherokee and Delaware are killed in the skirmish, with the remainder being removed to Indian Territory.

Honduran Independence

Honduras separates from the Federal Republic of Central America, the second state to leave the union after Nicaragua.

About this map