Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 05 Dec 1837 (Successors of New Spain: Canadian Rebellions), showing the following events: Treaties of Velasco; Fort Parker massacre; Statehood for Arkansas; Formation of Wisconsin Territory; Alvarado's Rebellion; Seminole removal; Statehood for Michigan; US recognition of Texas; Lower Canada Rebellion; Upper Canada Rebellion.

Canadian Rebellions

Successors of New Spain

North America 1837.1205

Canadian Rebellions

Texas Revolution, Latin American independence (5 December 1837)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

In the north, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated by local trading oligarchies. Increasing dissatisfaction led to calls for government reform and rebellions in 1837. Although the first revolts were quickly suppressed, many rebels fled to the US border and continued the fight from there.

Main Events

Treaties of Velasco

General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna of the Mexican Republic and Interim President David G. Burnet of the Republic of Texas sign two treaties at Velasco, Texas, detailing the end of hostilities between the two belligerents and setting the southern boundary of Texas at the Rio Grande. However neither treaty is ratified by the Mexican government as Santa Anna is at the time a prisoner of Texas.

Fort Parker massacre

At least a hundred American Indians, including Comanche, Kiowa, Caddo, and Wichita, raid Fort Parker, Republic of Texas, killing five men and capturing two women and three children. This is one of the first of a series of large scale Comanche raids which will target Texas and Mexico over the following two decades.

Statehood for Arkansas

Arkansas Territory, United States of America, is admitted to the Union as the 25th state, Arkansas. It continues to dispute Miller County with the Republic of Texas and the Indian Territory, but is not backed by the US in this claim.

Formation of Wisconsin Territory

Wisconsin Territory is split off from Michigan Territory, United States of America. As an inducement to give up its claim over the Toledo Strip to Ohio, the Upper Peninsula is assigned to Michigan Territory, giving it the present-day borders of Michigan.

Alvarado's Rebellion

Juan Bautista Alvarado, president of Alta California's legislature, seized control of Monterey and proclaimed California's independence from the Mexican Republic. He was supported by federalist Californios and American merchants, particularly Isaac Graham, and vowed to rejoin Mexico after the fall of the Centralist government. In 1838 Alvarado marched south and successfully conquered the rest of Alta California, pushing Mexico City to confirm him as governor. Alvarado promptly accepted this role, ending the rebellion.

Seminole removal

After United States forces in Florida Territory kill or capture numerous Seminole in a string of actions, some Seminole chiefs arrange a truce with Commanding General Thomas Jesup. In March the chiefs agree to relocation to the west, with more Seminole arriving in the Army camps to surrender. However tensions in the camps encourage many to escape before transportation and the war resumes, disrupting relocation for another five years.

Statehood for Michigan

Michigan Territory, United States of America, is admitted to the Union as the 26th state, Michigan.

US recognition of Texas

The United States of America recognizes the independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico, with US President Andrew Jackson nominating Alcee La Branche as Minister to Texas.

Lower Canada Rebellion

British authorities in the colony of Lower Canada attempt to arrest 26 members of the Patriote movement, triggering rebellion in the countryside. Despite a Patriote victory at Saint-Denis, the rebels are defeated in further encounters and flee to the United States.

Upper Canada Rebellion

Encouraged by the Lower Canada Rebellion, rebels in the British colony of Upper Canada led by William Lyon Mackenzie march on Toronto from Newmarket but are dispersed by the British at Montgomery's Tavern. Meanwhile another group of rebels under Charles Duncombe attempt to reach Toronto from the settlement of London but are defeated en route at Hamilton.

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