Trail of Tears
Successors of New Spain
North America 1832.1012
Trail of Tears
Texas Revolution, Latin American independence (12 October 1832)
Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean
In 1830, there were still five large American Indian groups living as semi-independent nations east of the Mississippi: the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. Under pressure from white settlers, US President Andrew Jackson passed the Indian Removal Act, allowing the government to extinguish Indian claims in the east in return for new lands in the west (in what is now Oklahoma). Over the following years, some 60,000 Indians were transferred to this new 'Indian Territory', with as many as a quarter dying en route.
The Choctaw sign the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek with the United States of America, leading to the final removal of their nation east of the Mississippi. Nearly 17,000 Choctaw make the move to what will become called the Indian Territory in three phases starting on November 1, 1831, and ending in 1833, with over 2,500 dying en route.
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Nat Turner leads fellow African-American slaves in a rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia. Turner and his followers kill 55-65 whites over the following days before the revolt is suppressed at Belmont Plantation. 56 slaves are executed for their part in the rebellion, with many more killed by militias and mobs in the aftermath.
Dissolution of Gran Colombia
The federation of the Republic of Colombia ("Gran Colombia") is officially dissolved, ending the union between New Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador.
Baptist preacher Samuel Sharpe incites a slave uprising in the British colony of Jamaica, ultimately mobilizing as many as 60,000 of the island's 300,000 slaves. The rebellion is suppressed by British forces under Sir Willoughby Cotton; 14 whites and 207 slaves are killed, with some 300 executed afterwards.
Santa Anna's Insurrection
Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna joins the Veracruz military garrison in a revolt against Mexican President Anastasio Bustamante, calling for the restoration of exiled former-president, Gomez Pedraza. Despite initial difficulties, Santa Anna is supported by revolts in Tamaulipas, Guerrero, and Texas. After the two sides clash in Puebla in December, Bustamante, Pedraza, and Santa Anna sign the Agreement of Zavaleta to install Pedraza as president. However, Santa Anna is the real power and only months later, on 1 April 1833, he is elected president himself.
Two Governors of California
After Manuel Victoria, the unpopular Mexican governor of Alta California, was defeated at Cahuenga Pass near Los Angeles in December 1831, the previous governor, Jose Maria de Echeandia, resumed his role. In response, Augustin Zamorano led a rebellion in northern Alta California and became governor there. The two governors coexisted for almost a year before the Mexican Republic sent a new governor, Jose Figueroa, to replace them. Figueroa achieved this peacefully, granting amnesty to all the rebels.
The Creek sign the Treaty of Cusseta with the United States of America, dividing Creek lands into individual allotments under the jurisdiction of the state of Alabama. While some sell their lands and move to the Indian Territory in the west, many stay on as citizens of Alabama only to come into conflict with speculators and squatters. After violence breaks out in 1836, over 15,000 of these remaining Creek are forcibly relocated to Indian Territory, with some 3,500 dying en route.
Black Hawk War
Some 1,000 Sauk, Meskwaki and Kickapoo Indians, known as the "British Band" and led by a Sauk named Black Hawk, cross the Mississippi River from the United States unorganized territory (now Iowa) into the US state of Illinois. After several clashes with wary US militia and troops, the British Band is finally located and defeated in July and August.
Treaty of Payne's Landing
Several chiefs of the Seminole sign a treaty with the government of the United States of America at Payne's Landing, Florida Territory. The treaty calls for the Seminole to move west to what would become Indian Territory if suitable lands were found. However after visiting the area in 1833, most of them decide against moving.
Texas Revolution of 1832
Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's insurrection against President Anastasio Bustamante encourages revolt in Anahuac, in the Mexican region of Texas, where settlers believe that Santa Anna opposes centralization. By mid-August, the revolutionaries have captured Velasco and Nacogdoches, restricting the Mexican garrisons to the west. From here they petition the government in Mexico City for change, particularly an end to restrictions on immigration.
- American history
- American Indian Wars
- Canadian history
- Gran Colombia
- Indian Territory
- Mexican history
- Northern California
- October 12
- Santa Anna
- Southern California
- United States